Hepatitis B is caused by a virus (HBV) which results in an inflammation of the liver. An estimated 257 million people are living with a hepatitis B virus infection (defined as hepatitis B surface antigen positive) 1. In 2015, hepatitis B resulted in 887,000 deaths, mostly from complications (including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Acute hepatitis B is usually associated with a loss of appetite, weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, jaundice, skin rash, and joint pain. The vaccine can help prevent infection and the development of chronic disease and liver cancer due to hepatitis B 2. Today, the most common administration route is with other childhood vaccines in a pentavalent or hexavalent combination.
- WHO. Hepatitis B fact sheet. WHO media centre. Reviewed July 2017. Accessed February 2018. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/
- CDC. Hepatitis B; Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. The Pink Book 13th ed. CDC; 2015. p. 158.
- Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk R, Krause G, Ott J. Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. The Lancet. 2015 Jul 28; 386(10003):1546–1555.
- The Pink Book 13th ed. CDC. Hepatitis B. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. April 2015; p. 149-173. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/hepb.html