The Type 2 Inflammation Connection

Published on: March 11, 2020


Tammy, living with asthma and allergies in the US
Tammy, living with asthma and allergies in the US
People living with type 2 inflammatory diseases often feel limited by unpredictable symptoms and isolated in their experiences. Living with these chronic diseases—often more than one—and searching for control, they have looked for answers and found few.

Recent scientific developments have shown that excessive type 2 inflammation, an overactive immune system response, underlies different atopic, allergic and inflammatory diseases.1-3 The lack of awareness of type 2 inflammation means people may not fully understand their disease(s), how they are connected, and the treatment options available to them.

See the faces and hear the stories of people living with these diseases around the world: 

Tammy (asthma + allergies, US)

Tammy experienced her first asthma attack as an infant. For years, her asthma and allergies persisted, but it wasn’t until she was pregnancy with her daughter that they became uncontrollable. When her symptoms worsen, she stays inside, watching life from a distance. While her conditions are not her fault, Tammy feels guilty for how they’ve impacted her family, especially her daughter who has often ended up taking on the caregiver role—instead of the other way around.

About eosinophilic esophagitis (EOE)

EOE is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus, the tube connecting the throat to the stomach.4 The most common symptom is difficulty in swallowing food, often necessitating dietary restrictions or the use of a feeding tube.5

About atopic dermititis (AD)

AD, a form of eczema, is a chronic inflammatory disease with recurrent symptoms often appearing as a rash on the skin.6 Signs and symptoms can include intense, persistent itching and skin dryness, cracking, redness, crusting and oozing.7

About asthma

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways, with symptoms including coughing, wheezing and difficulty breathing.8 These symptoms can wax and wane, and in some people, they worsen in response to triggers such as allergens, pollutants or exercise. Asthma varies in severity, and cases classified as severe can be much harder to control.9

About nasal polyps (NP)

NP are non-cancerous growths on the lining of the sinuses and nasal passages caused by chronic, excessive inflammation10 —for example in chronic rhinosinusitis (i.e., CRSwNP).11,12  NP can lead to breathing difficulties, nasal congestion and discharge, reduction or loss of sense of smell and taste, and facial pressure.13

About aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD)

AERD, sometimes called NSAID-AERD, is an intolerance or sensitivity to aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). People with AERD can have reactions to these medicines, including increased nasal congestion, frontal headache or sinus pain, wheezing, chest tightness, skin flushing, rash, abdominal pain and occasionally vomiting. AERD is a part of “Samter’s Triad,” in which patients with AERD often also have coexisting asthma and NP.14

About food and environmental allergies

Food and environmental allergies are a set of sensitivities to allergens present in foods like peanuts, wheat, soy and others, or environmental allergens such as timothy grass pollen or tree pollen. Symptoms of these allergies can include rashes on the skin, congestion, trouble breathing, tightness of the chest or throat, and a serious allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.15


Explore more

5 Things You Need to Know About Type 2 Inflammation

Taking Down Type 2 Inflammatory Disease

Improving Quality of Care in Atopic Dermatitis


1 N. A. Gandhi, B. L. Bennett and N. M. Graham, “Targeting key proximal drivers of type 2 inflammation in disease,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery,vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 35-50, 16 October 2016.
2 S. Carr, E. Chan, and W. Watson, “Eosinophilic esophagitis,” Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, vol. 14, no. Suppl 1, p. 58, 2018.
3 J. W. Steinke and J. M. Wilson, “Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: pathophysiological insights and clinical advances.,” Journal of Asthma and Allergy, vol. 9, pp. 37-43, 2016.
4 Accessed September 2019. Accessed September 2019.
6 Accessed September 2019.
7 Mount Sinai. Patient Care Atopic Dermatitis 2016. Accessed Sept. 9th, 2019.
8 Accessed September 2019.
Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. 2018. Available at: Accessed July 2018.
10 Gandhi NA, Pirozzi G., Graham NMH. Commonality of the IL-4/IL-13 pathway in atopic diseases. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology. 2017;13:5:425-437.
11 Accessed September 2019.
12 Newton JR, Ah-See KW. A review of nasal polyposis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(2):507-12.
13 Newton JR, Ah-See KW. A review of nasal polyposis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(2):507-12.
14 Accessed September 2019.
15 Accessed September 2019.