Areas of Highest Risk
Areas of highest risk incpude parts of Asia, Africa and Central and South America 2, 3.
Did You Know?
It relies on good hygiene and vaccination as the emergence of drug-resistant strains makes treatment more complex.
Transmission usually occurs through the fecal-oral route by ingestion of contaminated food or water
Symptoms and Treatment
- Following a 5 to 21-day incubation period, typical signs, including diffuse abdominal pain, headache, prolonged fever, anorexia, nausea, loss of appetite, and constipation or sometimes diarrhea, progressively appear 4.
- Daytime drowsiness and nighttime insomnia are characteristic signs.
- Possible complications include gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation, heart failure, and encephalitis.
- Effective antibiotics are available, and the prognosis in patients under treatment is usually favorable.
- WHO. Typhoid Fact sheet. Updated January 2018, accessed January 2018. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/typhoid/en/
- Fit For Travel. Typhoid. Available at: https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/typhoid.aspx. Accessed March 2019.
- Travel Health Pro. Typhoid Fever. Available at: https://travelhealthpro.org.uk/disease/184/typhoid-fever. Accessed March 2019.
- WHO. Typhoid Fever vaccines position paper; WER 2008, 83: 49-60. Accessed January 2018. https://www.who.int/wer/2008/wer8306.pdf?ua=1
This page last update: 09-2019