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Travel vaccines - Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that has become rare in industrialized countries, but that is still common in countries with poor hygiene routine where it is responsible for up to 20 million estimated cases and up to 161,000 deaths each year 1. It is contracted by drinking or eating the Salmonella typhi bacterium in contaminated food or water. The reservoir of this pathogen is strickly human.

Typhoid fever - Epidemiology

It relies on good hygiene and vaccination as the emergence of drug-resistant strains makes treatment more complex.

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Areas of highest risk

Areas of highest risk incpude parts of Asia, Africa and Central and South America 2, 3.

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Symptoms and treatment - Typhoid fever


  1. WHO. Typhoid Fact sheet. Updated January 2018, accessed January 2018. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/typhoid/en/
  2. Fit For Travel. Typhoid. Available at: http://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/typhoid.aspx. Accessed March 2019.
  3. Travel Health Pro. Typhoid Fever. Available at: https://travelhealthpro.org.uk/disease/184/typhoid-fever. Accessed March 2019.
  4. WHO. Typhoid Fever vaccines position paper; WER 2008, 83: 49-60. Accessed January 2018. http://www.who.int/wer/2008/wer8306.pdf?ua=1